A field that combine the disciplines of biology and engineering mechanics and utilizes the tools of physics, mathematics, and engineering to quantitatively describe the properties of biological materials. One of its basic properties is embodied in so-called constitutive laws, which fundamentally describe the properties of constituents, independent of size or geometry, and specifically how a material deforms in response to applied forces. For most inert materials, measurement of the forces and deformations is straightforward by means of commercially available devices or sensors that can be attached to a test specimen. Many materials, ranging from steel to rubber, have linear constitutive laws, with the proportionality constant (elastic modulus) between the deformation and applied forces providing a simple index to distinguish the soft rubber from the stiff steel. While the same basic principles apply to living tissues, the complex composition of tissues makes obtaining constitutive laws difficult. Most tissues are too soft for the available sensors, so direct attachment not only will distort what is being measured but also will damage the tissue. Devices are needed that use optical, Doppler ultrasound, electromagnetic, and electrostatic principles to measure deformations and forces without having to touch the tissue.Totally 75 journals are present on this particular topic.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on November, 2020