|The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
Biochips refer to the complete fundamental functional unit, capable of performing multi biochemical tasks simultaneously. Tissue chips on the other hand are similar miniaturized units that can replace a tissue or some part of it, enabling the organ to work normally. Both biochips & tissue chips have been elemental in tissue engineering technology and have proven to be of utmost importance in the same arena. DNA microarray also called as biochip in simple terms consists of a two dimensional grid system where upon sensors or solid flat substrates are incorporated. These solid substrates can be either positively charged just like silicon or glass or can also be consisting of integrated circuitry units that perform best in signal transduction studies. These sorts of microarrays have application in micromechanical studies. In order to bind these flat substrates to the grid system, surface chemistry comes into play that fabricates these substrates by way of a covalent bond on the grid. The fabrication method is not as simple as it seen and is effectively carried out by way of robots or high end micro filament technology as the slight displacement in charge could have serious consequences on the overall study in question. Micro fluidic cell culture chips also called Organ on a Chip cell consists of electrical systems that mimics the responses, structures and functions of physiological organs and tissues. These systems can be effectively used to study the behavioural changes in the organs and thereby enhancing the functions of the same in medium. Various tissue chips have been identified that although are small in comparison to the whole organ/tissue, are known to perform an entire organ function once implanted. These tissue chips are designed to be effective in every sense thereby gaining maximum effectiveness in a diseased individual. One such example is Lung on a Chip device that mimics the organ.