Biochips refer to the complete fundamental functional unit, capable of performing multi biochemical tasks simultaneously. Tissue chips on the other hand are similar miniaturized units that can replace a tissue or some part of it, enabling the organ to work normally. Both biochips & tissue chips have been elemental in tissue engineering technology and have proven to be of utmost importance in the same arena. DNA microarray also called as biochip in simple terms consists of a two dimensional grid system where upon sensors or solid flat substrates are incorporated. These solid substrates can be either positively charged just like silicon or glass or can also be consisting of integrated circuitry units that perform best in signal transduction studies. Technological advances in miniaturization have found a niche in biology and signal the beginning of a new revolution. Most of the attention and advances have been made with DNA chips yet a lot of progress is being made in the use of other biomolecules and cells.The different technologies and applications involving the use of non-DNA molecules such as proteins and cells. It focuses on microarrays and microfluidics, but also describes some cellular systems (studies involving patterning and sensor chips) and nanotechnology. The principles of each technology including parameters involved in biochip design and operation are important. A discussion of the different biological and biomedical applications illustrates the significance of biochips in biotechnology.
Last date updated on June, 2021