|By Ecosphere I mean the whole Earth ,a deep magma sediment layer, an atmospheric layer, a water layer, the biotic communities at the surface, together with their contained assemblages of organisms - the biotic communities that have evolved and within which organisms are intricately linked. When left to operate in its timeless old way, the Ecosphere has proved itself to be an intensely stable and generative system, but necessarily supported by an external source of energy, the Sun.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.