|Posthumous sperm retrieval (PSR) is a new and unconventional use of cryopreservation technology. Cryopreservation was used to preserve the human sperm for future use for the treatment of infertility in men by medical processes. In 1980, sperm obtained in the post-mortem state was first reported. The sociopolitical implications of PSR and the case law surrounding its use have increased in the last several years. Posthumous sperm retrieval for the purpose of procreation was first reported by Rothman in 1980.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.