|Non-maleficence is a practice in which physicians must refrain from providing ineffective treatments or acting with ill will toward patients. But since many beneficial therapies have serious risks, therefore, this principle, offers a little useful guidance to physicians. The sustaining ethical issue is whether the burdens are outweighed by the benefits. Examples of non-maleficent actions are: stopping a medication that is shown to be harmful, refusing to provide a treatment that has not been shown to be effective.
High-impact journals are those considered to be highly influential in their respective fields. The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.