|Orthopaedic implant infection rates range from 0.3% to 8.3% and occur by entry of pathogens into the wound during surgery, the spread of infection from a local source, hematogenous (blood transport) spread, or the recurrence of sepsis in a previously infected joint. With roughly 400,000 primary hip arthroplasties and nearly 1 million total knee anthroplasties in the U.S. in 2012, the market exceeds $20. While this market represents mostly smooth and highly polished implant components, prospects for 3D-printed or electron beam and laser beam melt-fabricated, patient-specific open-cellular appliances will require careful evaluation of the infection issue, especially in light of the continued mutation of pathogens against the most effective antibiotics have recently discussed novel strategies for using bacteriophage to attack complex, infectious biofilms on surfaces.
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity.