|Genotyping is the process of determining differences in the genetic make-up of an individual by examining the individual's DNA sequence using biological assays and comparing it to another individual's sequence or a reference sequence. It is known that Pharmacogenomics tests performed before drug treatment, lower overall medical costs and provide higher quality of life and longer life expectancy. However, we still need a precise demonstration that PG tests offer an added value, in terms of relative cost and benefit.The usefulness of the variants in clinical practice depends on improving the diagnostic prediction or fostering changes in prevention or treatment strategies. There is a compelling need for detailed and extensive studies to establish the cost and effectiveness of genotyping. Although there are still unanswered questions, PG researchers have generated and improved specific tools for novel treatment and handling of cancer patients. With new PG markers being identified and validated, physicians will have ways and means to tailor specific drugs to individual genetic profiles. Over the next few years, the emergence of molecular resistance to new therapies as a result of genomic alterations in cancer will drive diagnostics companies to develop new tests for individualized therapy. The future implementation of the methods for genotyping will lead to personalized treatment and eventually will shift the balance from disease relapse toward disease eradication. Therefore, it is essential that pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies join the efforts to develop accurate and cheap tests for routine diagnostics in pharmacogenomics. (Angela De Monaco, Massimiliano Berretta, Sergio Pugliese, Daniela Valente and Raffaele Di Francia, Early Outline Evaluation of Genotyping Costs of Pharmacogenomics)
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