"Biomarkers in serum are more translatable to the clinical applications because blood samples are routinely analyzed throughout pregnancy (e.g., glucose tolerance tests). Altered biomarker levels may precede clinical symptoms and these are important for early disease detection. Two proteins are observed with time dependent changes in expression. C4 was detected as upregulated at week 12 while it wasdetected as downregulated immediately before delivery in a separate study. Alternatively, apoE expression was observed as downregulated at week 12 and upregulated at term. C4 and apoE expression are altered in the serum long before diagnosis at week 20 suggesting they may have critical roles as biomarker of preeclampsia.
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Last date updated on July, 2014