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Molecular profiling refers to the study of specific patterns, or signature, of proteins, mRNA, DNA. Molecular profiling of PTC offers a valuable tool for identifying genes that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. Molecular profiling of papillary thyroid carcinomas samples and paired controls identified 177 differentially expressed genes (98 upregulated and 79 downregulated). The upregulation of potential biomarkers was verified in expanded sample sets by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemisty, and included arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor (uPA/uPAR) and kallikreins 7 and 10 (KLK7/KLK10). ALOX5 expression was elevated in PTC (22.57 fold) and demonstrated a direct correlation with tumor invasiveness. (Jan Geliebter, Molecular profiling of papillary thyroid cancer identifies functional biomarkers)