Hulka defined biomarker as the cellular, biochemical or molecular alterations that are measurable in biological cells such as human tissues, cells, or fluids. More recently, the definition has been broadened to include biological characteristics that can be objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator to therapeutic intervention of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes/ pharmacological responses. Biomarkers can reflect the whole spectrum of disease from the earliest manifestations to the final stages.
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on July, 2014