Biotechniques Journals List | OMICS International | Journal Of Bioprocessing And Biotechniques

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Tissue engineering combines the principles of engineering and life sciences in order to repair, restore and regenerate tissues and organs that mimic the functionality and mechanical properties of native tissues [1,2]. In the United States, there are 121,000 people currently waiting for lifesaving organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart) and tissue engineering offers new hope and therapeutic opportunities for these patients [3,4]. The classic approach to tissue engineering involves seeding living cells onto a solid biocompatible and eventually a biodegradable scaffold, and then culturing the tissue engineered construct in a bioreactor until the tissue achieves the desired cell density and mechanical properties for implantation [2]. However, new approaches that build 3D tissues with a bottom up approach using cellular spheroids are offering new possibilities. Rapid tissue fabrication approaches using spheroids have three key bioprocessing steps that lead to the development of 3D tissue structures: (1) pre-processing, (2) processing, and (3) post-processing. The pre-processing, processing and post-processing steps in rapid tissue fabrication with spheroids have limitations that require improvements. Upscaled spheroid production, accelerating the fusion of spheroids with magnetic forces and improvements in bioreactor design give promise for using spheroids in rapid tissue fabrication. These emerging bioprocessing techniques must meet regulatory requirements that will emerge from their development to ensure their safety and efficacy in clinical applications. The lack of an engineered vascular network is the limiting factor in building tissues and organs with spheroids and must be addressed moving forward. [Olsen TR, Alexis F (2014) Bioprocessing of Tissues using Cellular Spheroids]
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Last date updated on January, 2021