Cell culture is the process through which cells can be grown under controlled conditions, in generally outside of their natural environment. The term "cell culture" refers to the culturing of new cells derived from multi-cellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells. Basically the development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture. The growing viruses in cell cultures have allowed preparing purified viruses for the manufacture of vaccines. The injectable polio vaccine was one of the first products mass-produced using cell culture techniques. Cells can be isolated from tissues for ex vivo culture in several ways. Cells can be purified from blood; but only the white cells are capable of growth in culture. Mononuclear cells can be released by enzymatic digestion from soft tissues with help of enzymes such as trypsin, collagenase or pronase which break down the extracellular matrix. Primary cells are cultured directly from a subject, with the exception of some derived from tumors, and most of the primary cell cultures have limited lifespan. Cells are grown and maintained at an appropriate gas mixture and temperature (typically, 37 Â°C, 5% CO2 for mammalian cells) in a cell incubator. For each cell type culture conditions varies widely, and variation in the conditions for a particular cell type can result in different phenotypes.
Last date updated on January, 2021