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Fermentation and drying can be considered as the oldest ways to preserve raw materials extending the shelf-life as well as enhancing the flavour and nutritional qualities of the products. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the main agents responsible for fermentation, reducing the ripening time, minimizing manufacturing defects, improving sensory properties and inhibiting the development of pathogenic and spoilage flora. LAB is also considered as the most important microorganism responsible for the health-promoting effects of fermented foods, especially in milk-derived products. Indeed, strains of some species have traditionally been used as probiotics and added as functional bacteria in various food commodities. Due to the huge economic significance of industrial application of LAB as starters, biopreservatives and probiotics, a research emphasis on their metabolism, genetic and applications has been placed in the last 25 years. Before the development of genomics, scientists focused their investigations on single or small groups of genes or proteins. The genome-sequencing projects of the late 1990s yielded entire genome sequences of many bacteria and yeasts, leading to a huge amount of genetic data. The introduction of user-friendly and browser-based bioinformatics tools to extract information from these databases constitutes a key development of the post genomic era. It is now possible to search entire genome sequences for specific nucleic acid or protein sequences to have a global view of living organisms through in silico analyses. Transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and integromics are the main new technologies arisen from genomics that aim at understanding biological systems by its analysis and characterization in unknown details (thousands of genes and proteins detected simultaneously). This represents a challenge for scientific analysis and opens new perspectives for bacterial starter research purposes. [Fadda S (2012) Contribution of Proteomics for Diving into the Lactic Acid Bacteria Role and the Modification of the Food Matrix during Fermentation]
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Last date updated on June, 2014

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