Topographic and climatic conditions of major parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa warrant special measures for management of natural resources to prevent degradation of land resources, conservation of forest related natural resources, optimization of resource use, provision of sustainable livelihood and alleviation of poverty. National rate of deforestation is around 7000 to 9000 hectares per annum in Khyber Paktunkhwa. Destruction of forests is more evident in certain areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. To reverse this trend and to conserve natural resources, participatory approach has been suggested as an instrument at several national and international forums. The linchpin in the participatory approach is formation and mobilization of Village Development Committees (VDCs). These committees were formulated under Malakand Social Forestry Project. It was assessed through this research how much instrumental have been VDCs to mobilize communities. Results show there is some partial success. Still a lot is needed to improve the working of VDCs.