Ophthalmology is an area of medicine dealing with the anatomy, function and diseases of the eye and treatments. This area of vision research includes subtopics such as ophthalmic pathology, pediatric ophthalmology, neuro-ophthalmology, cornea and external diseases etc. Ophthalmology is a diverse and rapidly advancing field. The recent advancements are improvements in cataract surgical techniques, introduction of computer based program for IOL power calculation, intraocular shunt devices for glaucoma treatment, and new treatment modalities for subretinal choroidal neovascularization. Future research and studies focus on the aim of reducing visual disorders through clinical trials, new surgical interventions and in-depth study on specific diseases.