HIV infection has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in several large studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Our article goal was to assess traditional and emerging CVD-risk factors in the CARE Study, a well described cohort of HIV-infected adults. The major lipid disorder was low HDL-C and high TG level in this HIV-positive cohort. LDL-C was not elevated. Published data indicate that HIV infection and HIV medications influence CVD risk by impairing cholesterol removal (efflux) via ABCA1 from macrophages. Decreasing CVD risk in HIV patients, with impaired cholesterol efflux from macrophages, may require a lower LDL-C goal than recommended for HIV-negative patients and also a better control of TG level.