I t is without doubt that forensic toxicology has come far in recent decades. There is, however, no escaping of the fact that a lot still remains to be achieved. The current issues and trends facing those who practice one or both of the two main branches of forensic toxicology (postmortem forensic toxicology and human performance forensic toxicology) will be addressed. Forensic toxicologists are currently facing numerous new developments aimed to standardize the profession of forensic toxicology and to allow the criminal justice system as well as the public to count on consistent and comparable forensic toxicology services and expertise irrespective of jurisdiction. Examples of such developments that will be discussed include compliance with professional guidelines, accreditation of laboratories, certification of practitioners and adherence to minimum standards of practice. Additionally, forensic toxicologists face the need to incorporate in their profession increasingly sensitive analytical techniques, to understand novel approaches to drug testing, and to recognize the limitations in interpretations the profession suffers from. Concepts such as postmortem redistribution, postmortem interval and urinalysis interpretation in forensic toxicology will be used to demonstrate the current challenges forensic toxicologists are faced with.