alexa Epidemiology of Tuberculosis

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Epidemiology of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a major health problem worldwide. The greatest risk factor for tuberculosis progression from a latent infection to an active one is HIV infection. World Health Organization (WHO) reported that in 2008, there were an estimated 8.9–9.9 million incident cases and 9.6–13.3 million prevalent cases of tuberculosis, worldwide. They also reported that tuberculosis infection resulted in 1.1–1.7 million deaths among HIV-negative people and an additional 0.45–0.62 million deaths among HIV-positive people. The highest number of estimate cases of tuberculosis occurred in Asia (55% of the total TB cases) and Africa (30% of the total TB cases). The number of reported cases appears to be decreasing in the western hemisphere (3% of the total cases in North America: prevalence of 24 cases/100,000) owing to effective strategies to prevent, detect, and treat the infection, implemented by these countries. An estimated 0.5 million cases of MDR-TB (Multiple drug resistant TB) occurred worldwide in 2007, with most cases being reported from India and China. WHO also reported an increase in the number of Extensively Drug Resistant TB strains (XDR-TB) cases in the year 2009.

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