To feed the ever-growing global population, we need to produce more food and livelihood opportunities from less per capita arable land and available water. Providing ample food is only the first part of challenge, the second and more important challenge is to produce this in a safe and sustainable manner. Most of the cultivated crops/varieties have reached their yield plateau, hence protection of crops to harvest maximum is one of the ways to meet the increasing demands of food and to attain global food security on sustainable basis. There are about 67,000 pest species that damage agricultural crops, and a significant portion of agricultural inputs is required for pest management to protect the crop. Pesticides are extensively used in the intensive agriculture to control pests, diseases, weeds, and other crop enemies to reduce yield losses and maintain the product quality. Insect-pests management in high yielding varieties by extensive use of synthetic pesticides has certainly provided protection to crops; but it has also raised concerns about pesticide residues in the food and the environment. This pest management strategy adversely affects even beneficial organisms, leave harmful residues in food, feed and fodder, and causes environmental pollutions. Human exposure to pesticides occurs primarily through contaminated food, feed and drinking water. Their adverse effects depend on toxicity of pesticides, method of application, the dosage applied, their adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after their application, and how long the pesticides persist in the environment. Therefore, assessment of risks of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, and the types of pesticides used. Hence, the need of the day is to produce maximum from the decreasing availability of natural resources without adversely affecting the environment.