Oxidized cellulose is a polysaccharide substance formed by the oxidation of cellulose. Depending on the amount used, oxycellulose is completely absorbable and can be used as hemostatic agents in general and dental surgery for hemostatic purposes. Each procedure on the bone also carries the risk of bleeding, but still not much is known about the bone tissue reaction on this material. Due to this fact, the aim of this study was to evaluate the tissue reaction and osteogenic potential of the natural oxycellulose material RESORBA-CELL® standard by its implantation into rat cranial bone defects. The materials were evaluated using an established rat cranial defect model in 22 animals. One bone defect with a diameter of 5 mm was created per animal. The defects were filled with oxycellulose and left to heal for 4 weeks. Twelve samples (n=6 oxycellulose; n=6 untreated control lesions) were processed for histological evaluation. The remaining 10 samples were processed for mRNA expression analysis of genes coding for growth factors and osteogenic differentiation using quantitative RT-PCR. In oxycellulose treated bone lesions significant reduced mRNA levels of Runx2, Bglap and COL1A1 were found. The expression reached 74%, 73% and 47% of the mRNA quantity of the untreated bone, respectively. In the histological sections, the bone defects were completely filled with connective tissue / bone marrow with embedded foam cells after four weeks. In contrast to the controls, the tested material do not induced early bone healing. The residual bone seems to be rather absorbed. In conclusion, the study has shown that the RESORBA-CELL® oxidized cellulose has no osteogenic potential, but it still can be considered as a useful wound dressing in the dental surgery.