Tuberculosis (TB), a highly contagious chronic bacterial infection, is still a leading killer of young adults worldwide. TB has recently emerged as a major health concern. Each year, approximately 2 million persons worldwide die and 9 million become infected. TB has returned with a new face and the global scourge multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is reaching epidemic proportions. The prevalence of TB is continuing to increase because of the increased number of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, bacterial resistance to medications, increased international travels and immigration from countries with high prevalence, and the growing numbers of homeless and drug abusers. TB is treated with a multidrug regimen, and is thus exceptionally vulnerable to incidences of side effects, unsatisfactory patient compliances and slow improvement of patients.