alexa DELAYED ACTIVE DEFENSES: Physical responses

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The ability to repair wounds can help protect the plant from further infection by other, opportunistic pathogens. A secondary meristem in fleshy tissues, fruits, roots and bark, the cork cambium, can produce cork cells, which have thick, suberized walls. These cells can create a barrier to further colonization by the pathogen and, in some cases, develop an abscission layer around the site of infection, causing the infected tissue separate from the healthy tissue. Wounded tree trunks often secrete protective gums that seal the wound from further infection. The formation of tyloses, ingrowths if the protoplasm in xylem parenchyma can also restrict the spread of pathogenic propagules in the xylem, although they also tend to reduce the movement of water through the vessels, causing water stress in the plant.

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