Peripheral neuropathy is common in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Peripheral neuropathies complicate all stages of the HIV-1 disease and cause significant morbidity and disability in HIV-1 infected individuals and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. There are 6 major clinical types of HIV-associated neuropathies that are regularly seen in large HIV-1 clinics. Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common among the HIV-1-associated neuropathies. Mononeuropathy multiplex (MM) in early stages of HIV-1 infection are immune mediated, whereas in advanced AIDS it is caused by the CMV infection. Finally, subclinical autonomic nervous system involvement is common in all stages of HIV-1 infection. Because HIV-1-associated neuropathies are diverse in their etiology and pathogenesis, a precise clinical diagnosis is required to formulate a rational therapeutic intervention.