1. Solid state fermentation: The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented increased in interest in solid state fermentation (SSF) for the development of bioprocesses, such as bioremediation and biodegradation of hazardous compounds, biological detoxification of agro-industrial residues, biotransformation of crops and crop-residues for nutritional enrichment, bio-pulping, and production of value added products, such as biologically active secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, alkaloids, plan growth factors, etc. enzymes, organic acids, biopesticides, including mycopesticides and bioherbicides, biosurfactants, biofuel, aroma compounds, etc. SSF systems, appear to be promising one for the production of value added ‘low volume-hogh cost’ products such as biopharmaceuticals . SSF offers potential advantages in bioremediation and biological detoxification of hazardous and toxic compounds. With advent of biotechnological innovations, mainly in the area of enzyme and fermentation technology, many new avenues have opened for the application of SSF.