Leishmaniasis is a worldwide spread neglected disease caused by Leishmania parasites. Although it is an ancient disease, it has been recently classified as an emerging pathology with 2 million cases annually. It has become a public health problem since several factors favor its expansion such as migration, urbanization and deforestation, co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and malnutrition, and inadequate vector o reservoir control, treatment failure and emerging drug resistance due to incomplete treatment. Moreover, diagnosis and treatment is not often possible in rural areas where the disease is more frequent. Leishmania parasites can cause four clinical forms: cutaneous (CL), diffuse cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral pathology. Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of the disease; however CL is the most prevalent.