during painful procedures and during induction of anesthesia in both adults and children for greater than 50 years . However, there are concerns of the long-term neurocognitive effects of ketamine administration. Children who have had multiple surgeries requiring anesthesia with (and without) ketamine have been noted to have neurocognitive delays [2,3]. It has been impossible, to date, to determine if these neurocognitive delays are related to the ketamine, to the other anesthetic agents, or to a combination of both . Currently, ketamine is being investigated for control of chronic pain [4,5] and for treatment of severe depression . These indications necessarily require prolonged ketamine exposure compared to that required for induction of anesthesia or for sedation through a procedure. If ketamine is going to be further developed as a medication with prolonged exposures, it is important to have an understanding of the neurocognitive toxicities of ketamine. In light of the above-discussed risks for ketamine exposure in children, this study used dosages of ketamine below anesthetic levels. Herein we report data obtained on neurocognitive function in children aged 11-19 with chronic pain exposed to daily, oral ketamine for 14 days.