alexa Ultrafast Electron Plasma Index: An Ionization Perspective

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Ultrafast Electron Plasma Index: An Ionization Perspective

The index of refraction seems a trivial subject that we have been introduced to since the first optics courses, through Snell’s law.In the middle of the twentieth century there were a few attempts to have a better understanding of the index of refraction. With a classical mechanics picture in mind, the derivation of the index was a combination of the principle of least action and Fermat’s principle. In the current textbook approaches, the index of refraction is calculated by solving a damped harmonic oscillator for an electron set in motion by an applied electric field “E”. The two main classes of bound and free electrons are considered such that the motion of the first is 180 degree out of phase with the second. As a result free electrons create a negative index whereas bound electrons a positive one.

 

 
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