MS based techniques and approaches allowed researchers to assess lipids functions in medical research. A crucial role of lipids and their associated metabolism has been demonstrated in many human diseases including diabetes and metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Metabolic syndrome is associated with pathologic metabolic states such as obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia, and it increases the risk of developing atherosclerosis, inflammation and hypertension. Using an MS approach, Gross et al., evidenced that plasmalogens were major ethanolamine glycerophospholipids presented in the myocardium. End-stage human myocardium contained abundant amounts of triglycerides as well. Lipidomics studies have demonstrated that there were major glycerophospholipids and sphingolipid deficits in the brain structure in neurodegenerative Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Peroxisomal dysfunction in AD leads to glycerophospholipid deficits. Numerous studies have demonstrated that elevations of plasma fatty acids (myristic acid, α-linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acids) were associated with the risk of prostate cancer. For instance, Zhou et al., demonstrated that phosphatidylethanolamine, ether-linked phosphatidylethanolamine and ether-linked phosphatidylcholine could be considered as biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.