Presently, there remains no consensus on the optimal management of a patient with a high or intermediate-risk massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Treatment offered is varied and dependant on patient presentation, local guidelines and available local expertise. Despite the availability of various clinical parameters (blood pressure, tachycardia, hypoxia), biochemical markers (Troponin T or I, BNP), and imaging tools (echocardiographic, CT or MRI criteria) which facilitate the diagnosis and risk stratification of a PE, uniformity of treatment remains challenging.
Citation: Sachithanandan A (2014) The Role for Surgery in the Contemporary Management of Patients at High or Intermediate Risk of A Pulmonary Embolism-Related Death- is a Paradigm Shift Required?. J Pulm Respir Med 4:204.