alexa The Evolutionary Emmergence Of N-Acetylneuraminic Acid (Sialic Acid)- Containing Glycosphingolipids From Deuterosome Echinodermata Starfish

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The Evolutionary Emmergence Of N-Acetylneuraminic Acid (Sialic Acid)- Containing Glycosphingolipids From Deuterosome Echinodermata Starfish

Sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, gangliosides are characterized by the core sugar structures and ubiquitous in mammals with anionic N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAC) or sialic acid in glycan to a ceramide. On the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, they are working as cellular communicators [1,2]. The occurrence of the gangliosides is initially started from the phylum deuterosome Echinodermata such as starfish [3] and sea urchin [4,5], as the sialic acids appeared late in evolution, and only in vertebrates and higher invertebrates. During the past half-century, over 40 gangliosides have been isolated from marine echinodermata phylum. This old type or ancient type structures of starfish gangliosides has the lactose in the sugar part and specifically carrying 2 different types of termial sugars: 1) sialic acids of NeuAc and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) and 2) N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) bound to the carbon No 3 of galactose (Gal)-glucose (Glc) of lactose [6].

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