During embryonic development and beyond, hemodynamic conditions play an essential role in growth and remodeling of the cardiovascular system. Because the heart beats, generating cyclic pulsatile flow waves, there is a dynamic interaction between cardiovascular tissue and blood flow. This interaction determines the mechanical stimuli (stresses and strains/stretches) to which cardiovascular cells are subjected. Cells respond to changes in mechanical stimuli by altering their gene expression and, ultimately, their function. It is currently accepted that mechanical stimuli modulates growth (change in volume) and remodeling (change in composition) of cardiovascular tissues during development and adulthood.