Cell cycle co-ordination in embryo cloning by nuclear transfer

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Cell cycle co-ordination in embryo cloning by nuclear transfer

Embryo reconstruction by the transfer of a donor nucleus to an enucleated one-cell egg was first proposed by Spemann (1938) to answer the question of nuclear equivalence or ‘Do nuclei change during development?’ By transferring nuclei from increasingly advanced embryonic stages, these experiments were designed to determine at which point the developmental potential of nuclei became restricted. Owing to technical limitations and the unfortunate death of Spemann, these studies were not completed until Briggs and King (1952) demonstrated that certain nuclei could direct development to a sexually mature adult. Their findings led to the current concept that equivalent, totipotent nuclei from a single individual could, when transferred to an enucleated egg, give rise to genetically identical individuals. In the true sense of the meaning, these individuals would not be clones, as unknown cytoplasmic contributions in each may vary and the absence of any chromosomal rearrangements would have to be demonstrated

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