Human endogenous retrovirus (HERVs) constitute approximately 8% of the human genome. Induction of HERV transcription is possible under certain circumstances, and may have a possible role in some pathological conditions. Thirty-three samples of kidney transplant patients and twenty healthy blood donors were used to analyze, HERV-K and –W pol gene RNA expression by relative quantitative relative Real-Time PCR. We demonstrated that HERVs pol gene expression levels were higher in kidney transplant recipients than in healthy subjects. Moreover, HERV-K and –W pol gene expression was significantly higher in the group of kidney transplant recipients with high CMV viral load than in the groups with no or moderate CMV viral load.