Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent of the neurodegenerative amyloid diseases and is characterized by accumulation of amyloid-β and tau. Recent studies have indicated that AD may be a brain infection. Although AD has not been shown to be transmissible, the burning issue is whether the potential infectious causes are the misfolded amyloid proteins themselves, or an unidentified microorganism. The idea of a replicating protein (prion) evolved from research on the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) represented by Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Prions are now suspect in all of the amyloid related neurodegenerative diseases.