Psychiatric illness is common in HIV infected individuals, and underlines the importance for screening not only for cognitive impairment but also for co morbid mental disease in HIV-positive patients. Further studies of the neuropsychiatric complications during HIV disease and the use of psychotropics under these circumstances are clearly needed. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of HAD is essential to identify additional therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. Studies are also needed for optimizing effective utilization of antiretrovirals into the CNS. Mania and psychosis secondary to HAD may be used as an indicator to initiate HAART, irrespective of CD4 count. Further research on the utility of HAART in the treatment of such acute neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with HIV infection should be initiated.