alexa Galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose: Possible Role in Red Meat Allergy

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Galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose: Possible Role in Red Meat Allergy

The alpha-gal epitope is distinctive in its dispersal in mammals; it is generously expressed in non-primate mammalian, New World monkeys, and prosimians, where by contrast an IgG antibody binding to this epitope is produced naturally in humans, Old World monkeys, and apes. Non-primate mammals, such as bovine and porcine species, contain a larger proportion of red meat (slow and intermediate fibers) than ground-based birds. Ground-based birds, chickens and turkeys, in contrast, contain a significant amount of white meat, especially in their chest muscles (fast fibers). Slow and intermediate muscle fibers exhibit a higher resistance to fatigue, require more oxygen supply, and therefore contain a more extensive vascular supply. Due to increased amounts of blood capillaries surrounding slow and intermediate muscle fibers, there is an increase of basement membrane (BM). Laminin, a glycoprotein present abundantly in the basal lamina layer of BM, has been shown to contain N-linked oligosaccharides in large amounts exhibiting the alpha-gal structure.

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