Role of Cytokines

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Role of Cytokines

Cytokines play an important role in innate immune system recognition and rapid clearance of pathogens in mammalian at the cost of causing tissues injury, which also can regulate the innate immunity and adapt immunity. Adequate cytokine activation enhances the ability of defending pathogens. However, excessive activation of the cytokine responses may destroy the homeostasis and lead to pathological inflammatory consequences. An inflammatory response flaring out of control is known as “cytokine storm”. The term of “cytokine storm” was first coined by Ferrara JL to describe their observations in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), after which it began to appear more frequently in the scientific researches about acute lung injury induced by the influenza A viruses. Previous researches show that influenza A viruses were the most common pathogens during respiratory infection which can induce different cytokines profiles in lung tissues and have a significant influence on patients’ prognosis. Different subtypes of influenza A viruses can raise various network of cytokines, even in the same species.

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