alexa The Socio-Economic Impact of Controlled and Notifiable Wildlife Diseases in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) States of Africa

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The Socio-Economic Impact of Controlled and Notifiable Wildlife Diseases in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) States of Africa

Over the past two decades, wildlife based ecotourism has rapidly expanded on a global scale and remains an important source of foreign revenue for many developing countries. Almost all countries within the Southern African Development Community (SADC) states have an income stream that is derived primarily from ecotourism [1]. It therefore becomes imperative to thoroughly assess the sustainability of the wildlife industry, particularly in these developing countries. The wide spectrum of disease (endemic and/or exotic) that exists within wildlife impedes export and trade and thus contributes toward crippling rural economies of many African countries. For the purpose of this review, the socio-economic impact of two diseases, i.e Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), an endemic disease of cloven-hoofed animals and Avian influenza virus (AIV), an zoonotic disease of birds, will be discussed. A controlled animal disease is any animal disease in respect of which any general or particular control measure has been prescribed while for a notifiable disease, it is required by law to report the occurrence or identification of such disease to responsible government authorities. FMD and AIV fall in both categories of classification in all SADC member states and are listed as such within the OIE guidelines [2]. Although these two diseases do not enjoy the monopoly of wildlife diseases, they are relevant examples to illustrate the burden that wildlife diseases can impose on communities if not controlled appropriately. It is hoped that by discussing the clinical, biological and socio-economic impact of these diseases, inferences and parallels on similar infectious diseases affecting both wild and domestic animal hosts can be drawn. A comprehensive list of wildlife/domestic host diseases with a potential to disrupt animal health patterns and pose a threat as emerging diseases is both humans and animals is discussed in other work [3,4].   Read More

 
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