An expanding group of close to 30 viruses comprise the Arenaviridae family of viruses. Novel arenaviruses are being discovered, on average, every 2–3 years, and the recent emergence of novel pathogenic arenavirus species suggests that others will be identified in the near future .Arenaviruses cause asymptomatic chronic infections in their respective rodent reservoir hosts and are primarily transmitted to humans through inhalation of aerosolized infectious excreta or secretions. Human disease varies widely from asymptomatic or mild febrile illnesses that clear within a few days to severe life-threatening hemorrhagic fever (HF) requiring prompt medical attention. The onset of arenaviral HF generally proceeds inconspicuously with immunosuppression, high viremia, hypercytokinemia, increased vascular permeability, reduced perfusion and eventually hypovolemic shock .There are presently 7 arenaviruses known to cause viral HF. The group includes 5 New World viruses (Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, Sabia, and Chapare) present in areas of South America, and two Old World viruses (Lassa and Lujo) found in defined regions of Western and South Africa.