Apathy and Impulsive Control Disorders

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Apathy and Impulsive Control Disorders

Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Apathy and impulse control disorders (ICD) are two opposite motivational expressions of a continuous behavioural spectrum involving hypo- and hyperdopaminergia. Both syndromes share pathological (decreased vs increased) dopamine receptor stimulation states. Apathy belongs to the spectrum of hypodopaminergic symptoms together with anhedonia, anxiety and depression. Apathy is a key symptom of PD which worsens with disease progression.

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