Ever since the existence of man he knows the art of sowing seeds in soil and harvesting the produce. With subsequent gain of knowledge this practice developed into a range of activities and disciplines encompassed by modern agriculture. Over the years, contamination of soils and waters by heavy toxic metals has become a major concern for the environment, as well as, for human health. Among heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) toxicity is attributed, primarily to its ability to accumulate in living things, since plants and animals are not capable to metabolize large amounts of the metals. In agricultural soil it is added through sewage sludge, industrial waste, phosphatic fertilizers and urban activities . Cadmium accumulation in plants alters mineral nutrients uptake, inhibits stomatal opening by interacting with the water balance of plant , impairs the activities of the Calvin cycle enzymes, inhibits photosynthetic rate  and lowers crop productivity .
Citation: Masood A, Khan NA (2013) Ethylene and Gibberellic Acid Interplay in Regulation of Photosynthetic Capacity Inhibition by Cadmium. J Plant Biochem Physiol 1:111. doi: 10.4172/2329-9029.1000111