Dental restorations and periodontal health are inseparably interrelated. The adaptation of the margins, the contours of the restoration, the proximal relationships and the surface smoothness have a critical biological impact on the gingiva and the supporting periodontal tissues. Dental restorations therefore play a significant role in maintaining periodontal health. The use of rubber dam clamps, copper bands, matrix bands, and discs in such a manner as to lacerate the gingiva results in varying degrees of inflammation. Although for the most part such transient injuries undergo repair, they are needless sources of discomfort to the patient. Injudicious tooth separation and excessively vigorous condensing of gold foil restorations are sources of injury to the supporting tissue of the periodontium that may be attended by acute symptoms such as pain and sensitivity to percussion.