Voltammetric measurements rely on applying a controlled potential variation, and consequently recording the intensity versus potential dependence (voltammogram).
There are various ways to impose a potential variation in time, and subsequently a series of voltammetric methods. Cyclic voltammetry relies on linearly scanning the potential in time, observing a triangular waveform variation. Differential pulse voltammetry is based on two samplings of the current intensity for each potential pulse: one measurement before applying the pulse, and the second towards the end of the pulse period. In square-wave voltammetry, a square-wave is superimposed on the potential staircase sweep, the current intensity being recorded at the end of each potential change. This potential step technique allows minimizing charging current and provides improved sensitivity, as also happens in differential pulse voltammetry.
These electrochemical techniques are characterized by fastness, simplicity of both the instrumentation and the applied procedure, minumum sample pre-treatment and do not involve toxic wastes. They allow the determination of a series of food and beverage components, relying on their electroactivity