Organ damage or loss can occur from congenital disorders, cancer, trauma, infection, inflammation, iatrogenic injuries or other conditions and often necessitates reconstruction or replacement. Replacement may take the form of organ transplant. At present, there is a severe shortage of donor organs that is worsening with the aging of the population. Tissue engineering follows the principles of cell transplantation, materials science and engineering towards the development of biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal tissue function. Therapeutic cloning involves the introduction of a nucleus from a donor cell into an enucleated oocyte to generate embryonic stem cell lines whose genetic material is identical to that of its source. These autologous stem cells have the potential to become almost any type of cell in the adult body, and thus would be useful in tissue and organ replacement applications. This paper reviews recent advances in stem cell research and regenerative medicine, and describes the clinical applications of these technologies as novel therapies for tissue or organ loss.