Application of DNA Fingerprinting in an Alleged Case of Paternity

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Application of DNA Fingerprinting in an Alleged Case of Paternity

DNA fingerprinting is proving to be of great importance in the establishment of the paternity of an individual. The forensic DNA analysis is commonly used to detect the criminal activities such as homicide, rape but, it is also used in cases to establish the paternity of disputed offspring or, to know the identity of dead person and cases of baby swapping .
DNA Typing can be used to test any DNA containing biological trace evidence. The composition of the DNA molecule essentially does not vary from cell to cell; therefore, the DNA in blood is identical to that in other biological material such as hair, semen, skin, and bone marrow.
In India, DNA fingerprinting has been added to the routine work of disputed paternity cases as a powerful tool of investigation in Forensic cases. The old conventional investigation based on blood antigen systems like variable blood groups, HLA Tissue Typing was no more used in such sensitive cases because of the limitation or invariability of loci analyzed .

Paternity, the state of being a father, can be legally established in several ways. When the parents of a child are married, paternity is commonly presumed. To determine whether a man is the father of a child born out of wedlock, a lawsuit known as a "paternity action" must be brought. In such a suit, paternity may be established if the alleged father admits paternity.

Blood-group studies, which commonly employ the ABO system, cannot establish paternity but can conclusively exclude an alleged father from being a candidate. This is the case because a child must inherit his or her blood type from the mother and/or father; thus, if the child’s blood type differs from both the mother's and the alleged father's types, the man could not possibly be a parent of son. A typical population frequency for conventional blood typing might be 1 in 200, for DNA 1 in 5,000,000. This means that only 1 in 5,000,000 people would have the same DNA profile.

Adequate samples for DNA typing can be collected from blood, blood stain & oral swab easily. DNA typing compares strands of genetic material between the child and alleged father comparing strands from various locations of the genetic material allows accuracy ratings of 99.9 percent. DNA typing allows an alleged father to be excluded with 100 percent certainty. The aim of present work is to perform an analysis of evidence to assist the court in establishing physical facts of criminal and civil disputes.

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