Febrile illness has remained a public health challenge across all ages, especially in resource poor countries despite clear advances made in understanding its epidemiology management and control. To date, the incidence and relative importance of febrile illnesses are still not known in many African regions because of the difficulties associated in measuring febrile illness in a population with poor diagnostic facilities. One of the most important tropical diseases known to cause febrile illness is typhoid, an acute systemic disease of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, transmitted by the fecal-oral route through contaminated food and water. Typhoid has prevailed in the developing countries because of poor personal and environmental sanitation and because of the emergence of resistance to the antibiotics used for treatment. The true burden of typhoid may generally be difficult to quantify because most of the clinical pictures are easily mistaken for many other febrile illnesses including malaria, West-Nile and HIV viruses.