Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, with the complexity of disease and its progression has become a challenge to human beings. A UNAIDS global estimate reveals that currently 33.2 million people are living with HIV infection worldwide. The good news is that incidence of HIV infection showed a steady decline throughout the world. Unavailability of an approved vaccine makes this disease a tough nut to crack. HIV infection leads to variable disease course in different people, amongst them are long term nonprogressors, who survive more than 10 years after getting infected. Owing to the chronicity of the disease and the extent of morbidity it causes, management of such individuals has become a challenge for physicians treating HIV infected patients. With the advent of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), the quality of HIV seropositive patients improved to a greater extent, simultaneously their morbidity and mortality has reduced significantly. Conversely previous research reports have pointed out the effects of HAART on the patients as well as stressed the need to evaluate various hematological parameters before initiating HAART therapy. Studies conducted in the past have also demonstrated the role of HIV infection by itself irrespective of HAART therapy can result in the development of metabolic disorders including altered lipid metabolism. Previous reports have also suggested the association of cardiovascular disease (CAD) and HAART therapy.