Uric acid has antioxidant effects on neurons. Abnormally high levels of uric acid are, however, associated with gout. Previous studies have suggested that high levels of uric acid (and the presence of gout) may exert a protective effect against the risk of developing some neurological diseases. We aimed to investigate this hypothesis in a large database of hospital admissions in England. Oxidative stress is thought to have an important role in neuronal degeneration. Neuronal degeneration is a characteristic feature of several neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and motor neuron disease (MND). A high fatty acid content and a low antioxidant capacity are thought to be factors which render neural cells more susceptible than other body tissues to oxidative stress. This, in turn, may result in damage to proteins and DNA, subsequent inflammation and neuronal loss. Uric acid is a potent antioxidant found throughout extracellular fluid, as sodium urate, and is thought to account for more than half of the antioxidant capacity of plasma.