Most surgical procedures do not require prophylactic or postoperative antibiotics. Appropriately administered antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the incidence of surgical wound infection. Prophylaxis is uniformly recommended for all clean-contaminated, contaminated and dirty procedures. It is considered optional for most clean procedures, although it may be indicated for certain patients and clean procedures that fulfill specific risk criteria.
The antibiotic prophylactic regimens are recommended only for patients with underlying cardiac conditions associated with the highest risk of adverse outcome from infective endocarditis.