Most surgical procedures do not require prophylactic or postoperative antibiotics. Appropriately administered antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the incidence of surgical wound infection. Prophylaxis is uniformly recommended for all clean-contaminated, contaminated and dirty procedures. It is considered optional for most clean procedures, although it may be indicated for certain patients and clean procedures that fulfill specific risk criteria.
Patient-related factors include certain valvular heart disorders and immunosuppression. Procedures with higher risk involve areas where bacterial seeding is likely:
The antibiotic prophylactic regimens are recommended only for patients with underlying cardiac conditions associated with the highest risk of adverse outcome from infective endocarditis.